THE EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT PUBLIC POLICIES ON EDUCATION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MINAS GERAIS AND RIO DE JANEIRO
, M.C. D'Araujo2
, M. Dusi3
1Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (BRAZIL)
2Ponticia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (BRAZIL)
3Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (BRAZIL)
This article presents the preliminary results of a survey on the effects of educational public policies implemented by the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro that were based on the principles of administrative rationality, professionalism, performance evaluation, transparency and accountability for results proposed by New Public Management. For the research, explanatory type, it was analyzed the official documents of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro - laws, decrees and resolutions - relating to public policy in focus and statistical data published by research institutes on the performance of education in the preceding and immediately subsequent to such policies periods. The results suggest that policies aimed at strengthening the strategic management of systems and school units contributed significantly to the improvement in educational performance of the studied states. The state of Minas Gerais was a pioneer in the introduction of participative management tools and assessment tools and management for results in the educational system. In 1983 the state had already begun the implementation process of school boards and in 1992 created the first public school assessment program. But it was from 2003, with the change in public management model of the state that the principles of strategic management became part of day-to-day educational management. Between 2003 and 2011 performance indicators were defined, agreed targets, set new school principals selection criteria and created management development programs. As a result, the illiteracy rate dropped from 12% to 7.8% between 2000 and 2014 and the network service rate indicates that basic education is almost universal. In addition, 88.9% of children had the reading level recommended in 2013 and, in the same year, the state took the 1st place among the 27 states of the country in the Basic Education Development Index (IDEB).
Changes in educational management processes are more recent in the state of Rio de Janeiro. After going through constant changes in the education secretariat and achieve one of the worst educational performance of the country in late 2010, the State Education Department developed a strategic plan that should be implemented in the following years. Understanding that the success of programs in all fronts of the organization depends on the network, the structural axis of the educational policy was the management. As a result of the programs and projects derived from this policy, in 2013 the state reached the 4th place in IDEB to high school, and the notes of all stages of basic education - early years and the end of Elementary and Secondary Education - improved significantly between 2009 and 2013 (18%, 16% and 29%). Despite having different characteristics in the design and implementation of policies, both states have applied the principles of NPM and strategic management concepts used by private companies and increasingly present in public administration. Stressing the strategic management as a possible success of public education factor of these states, this article suggests that such experiences will serve as a reflection on the continuity of this management model and development of public policies and their implementation in other states of the federation.