GLOBALIZED INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE WHO DISTANCE LEARNING MATERIALS FOR BLOOD SAFETY
, J. Emmanuel2
, J. Fordham3
1Wayne State University (UNITED STATES)
2Executive Director International Projects, Safe Blood Foundation (ZIMBABWE)
3Independent consultant (UNITED KINGDOM)
The question of how to provide instruction across multiple international locations is becoming increasingly important with the trend of global operations and linkages. Individual countries or organizations have developed training that could be used by multiple regions and the extension of development assistance beyond borders to the provision of international public goods such as training materials and instructional expertise, has the advantage of decreasing duplication, standardizing care, and expanding impact of projects. The process of designing instruction for numerous international regions is defined as globalized instructional design with the goal of addressing common issues despite cultural and environmental variations. Design and development of materials for multiple international audiences is planned from the onset, rather than adaptation of the instruction designed for a single culture.
This paper uses a case study approach to present the processes used to produce the World Health Organization distance learning materials for improvement of Blood Safety using a globalized design process.
Qualitative methods including document review and key informant interviews were used. Design team members were interviewed to document the process and establish perceived efficacy.
The Emmanuel and Fordham model for globalized design is presented using a graphical format and is characterized by global, regional, local, and evaluation phases. The processes are flexible and systems-based with consideration of contextual influences throughout the phases. The model assumes initation from an international agency, the intent to provide standardized levels of practice, the intent to provide training for multiple audiences from different cultures at the onset of the process, global significance of objectives, and content that is not primarly affected by culture or communication strategies. The process relies on using a design team with significant expertise and international representation, extensive formative evaluation from experts, implementation and dissemination processes cascading from a global to a local level, and contextual considerations. Localization of the content was facilitated by the active learning approaches chosen which utilized activities requiring application within the learners environment. The Global product excluded any content or mechanisms that might be culture specific such as graphics and culture-specific examples. Regional dissemination was achieved through workshop based introduction of the materials with key representatives who had the ability to initiate the training. Multiple translations of the materials were conducted, with an overall recommendation for translation/and formative evaluation of the translated versions by individuals with knowledge of the field and content. The model also includes deliverables for each step to assist with project management and reporting to funding agencies.
An innovative globalized design model is presented using a graphical model and retrospective reflection of the mechanisms used to design print-based distance learning materials used across all continents to improve Blood Safety.