About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 2958-2962
Publication year: 2016
ISBN: 978-84-608-8860-4
ISSN: 2340-1117
doi: 10.21125/edulearn.2016.1649

Conference name: 8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 4-6 July, 2016
Location: Barcelona, Spain


We are proposing that learning entails a dynamic decision-making process. Learning constitutes acts of selecting and making decisions in the face of a range of possibilities. We are looking at how we make decisions, i.e., how we choose. Interacting in groups of three, and sharing self-reflections with each other in plain sight, the authors follow methods of participant-observation and symbolic interaction to determine how they make choices that result in learning outcomes.

The purpose of our presentation is to show-case learning as a choice between opportunities. That is to say, learning comes with an 'opportunity cost.' An opportunity cost is the learning outcome of an alternative choice that must be forgone. It would be an easy choice if we knew the end outcome; however, the risk that we could achieve greater "benefits" (be they monetary or pedagogical) with another option is the opportunity cost.

We are presenting learning outcomes that enhance viewers' understanding of the idea that learning is a dynamic choice.
We are suggesting that whenever we look at how we make decisions and exercise choices interactively, we reclaim our role as arbiters of our learning outcomes. In this regard, we will show-case the interaction among three participants in 10 steps. Our paper considers the idea that learning is a dynamic decision-making process among active participants. What does this mean? How do we understand such a statement? How do we perceive it and experience it?

Method: process and practice:
We are presenting a method for self-reflection, participant-observation and symbolic interaction in 10 steps. We are show-casing three interacting participants who are 'looking' at their interaction. The underlying purpose in doing so is two-fold: First, to see the influence of 'active participation' in an (unfolding) interaction. That is to say, to identify factors that impact the (emerging) outcome.
Second, to see the role of self-reflection as a method for increasing the range of possibilities and choices by active participants.

Conclusion: learning outcomes:
The learning outcome is determined by the words selected to create a dichotomy and structure.
Once a decision is made, that is, once a word is selected, then it cannot be pulled back. The participant is responsible for the consequence of the learning outcome.

We become aware that one's choice of word does not exist in isolation. Every decision that a participant made, impacted the system. We experience the adage "As you sow, so shall you reap." Its message is clear: if you make good decisions, you will reap meaningful outcomes. Every action impacts the self and the group's learning outcome. Thus a small decision can result in a completely different trajectory of thoughts, and we need to take responsibility for our choice of words, if any learning is to take place at all. Essentially, every decision has a consequence, no matter which choice of word is upheld, and which one is ignored.
author = {Dugal, S. and Iturralde, P. and Stamp, H. and Abd El Aziz, O. and Amodeo, N. and Arnold, Z. and Davis, A. and Doorley, R. and Dyer, A. and Guglielmo, D. and Hagan, M. and Hayes, A. and Hupal, L. and Iannone, J. and Jacobs, E. and Kaiser, S. and Kuehlke, T. and Labe, J. and Laprise, A. and Lomolino, C. and Rann, S. and Ryan, B. and Santagata, M. and Sluby, M. and Vajifdar, Y.},
series = {8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies},
booktitle = {EDULEARN16 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-608-8860-4},
issn = {2340-1117},
doi = {10.21125/edulearn.2016.1649},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2016.1649},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Barcelona, Spain},
month = {4-6 July, 2016},
year = {2016},
pages = {2958-2962}}
AU - S. Dugal AU - P. Iturralde AU - H. Stamp AU - O. Abd El Aziz AU - N. Amodeo AU - Z. Arnold AU - A. Davis AU - R. Doorley AU - A. Dyer AU - D. Guglielmo AU - M. Hagan AU - A. Hayes AU - L. Hupal AU - J. Iannone AU - E. Jacobs AU - S. Kaiser AU - T. Kuehlke AU - J. Labe AU - A. Laprise AU - C. Lomolino AU - S. Rann AU - B. Ryan AU - M. Santagata AU - M. Sluby AU - Y. Vajifdar
SN - 978-84-608-8860-4/2340-1117
DO - 10.21125/edulearn.2016.1649
PY - 2016
Y1 - 4-6 July, 2016
CI - Barcelona, Spain
JO - 8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
JA - EDULEARN16 Proceedings
SP - 2958
EP - 2962
ER -
S. Dugal, P. Iturralde, H. Stamp, O. Abd El Aziz, N. Amodeo, Z. Arnold, A. Davis, R. Doorley, A. Dyer, D. Guglielmo, M. Hagan, A. Hayes, L. Hupal, J. Iannone, E. Jacobs, S. Kaiser, T. Kuehlke, J. Labe, A. Laprise, C. Lomolino, S. Rann, B. Ryan, M. Santagata, M. Sluby, Y. Vajifdar (2016) LEARNING AS CHOICE: INTERACTIVE DYNAMIC DECISION-MAKING, EDULEARN16 Proceedings, pp. 2958-2962.