SCHOOL RISK FACTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CYBERBULLYING: A REVIEW STUDY
The massive use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has transformed the forms of social interaction in new virtual environments in recent decades, although it has also fostered new forms of perpetration and abuse of power. In this sense, the maladaptive use of ICTs by adolescents has led to the emergence of an increasing problem of peer harassment through the Internet and mobile phones. This phenomenon called cyberbullying entails aggressive, intentional and repetitive behaviors carried out by an individual or group that, using electronic means, perpetrates their acts of harassment against a victim who presents difficulties to defend themselves.
Despite the fact that cyberbullying exceeds the boundaries of the school, the school environment and the interactions established in it determine the start and maintenance of these acts. Therefore, it is essential to know the risk factors and the consequences of cyberbullying in the academic field since their analysis will help early detection, as well as the development of effective intervention programs in schools.
The aim of the present study was to review the school risk factors of cyberbullying and its negative consequences in children and adolescents. For this, an analysis of the predisposing and consequent variables related to participation as a victim, bully or bystander of cyberbullying was examined. The analysis was carried out following the method of document review of articles, theses, book chapters, review studies and papers presented at conferences, available in Scopus, Scielo, Proquest, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases.
From the review of risk factors, the evidence points out that victimization in traditional bullying acts as one of the variables with the greatest predictive capacity over cyberbullying. In addition, the degree of cybervictimization reported is independent of the training received on coexistence and risks in the network. On the other hand, it is also emphasized that the presence of specific support educational needs, emotional disorders or behavior disorders in students, as well as low academic performance, predict cybervictimization and cyberbullying.
Regarding the consequences of cyberbullying, there are numerous studies that warn that a problematic or non-adaptive use of ICT can trigger important consequences at a psychosocial level in adolescents. At the educational level, there are evident consequences for those involved, such as difficulties in concentrating, poor school performance, school absenteeism, poor perception of the school environment, general academic problems, etc.
This study provide information about the factors of school vulnerability that lead children to participate in cyberbullying and provide a guide for the development of school prevention protocols adapted to the reality of this phenomenon.