MEASURING GENDER GAP AT THE UNIVERSITY
University of Zilina (SLOVAKIA)
About this paper:
Conference name: 11th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 1-3 July, 2019
Location: Palma, Spain
Abstract:The changes of technology, policy, market conditions etc. evoke and make new environment and conditions on the labour market. The competences, skills, knowledge require by the employers on the potential employees, students or graduates are the permanent. The gender issue in the labour market has gained increased importance in recent decades. This is partly the outcome of the European Union’s continuous efforts to attract attention to the main factors which might contribute to promote policies towards decreasing gender labour market differentials and finally to introduce more efficient legislative measures against discrimination.
This contribution presents a broad overview of the existing gender gap at the university. The focus is on the rate of women in the total number of students at all levels of higher education, e.g. bachelor, master and doctoral level by Bologna system as well as in the total number of employees, teachers and researchers. The rates identify also the differences between faculties by their specialization. These results are compared with the proportion of women in key sectors in Slovakia. The project also monitors the representation of women in the scientific institutions and the managerial position. The measuring gender gap or equality at the university has been carried out within the framework of the Horizon EU project Change (2018-2020) of which the University of Zilina, Slovakia is partner. The identification and measuring gender gap at the university is based on the concept of the Glass Ceiling Index developed by the institutions of the GenderTime consortium (University of Padova).
Slovakia has put in place some actions aimed at narrowing the gender gap in economy including the education and universities. According to Eurostat data, the pay gap between men and women in Slovakia was approximately 23% in 1998. The gap remained constant for the year 2003 (Eurostat, 2004). Given this, the pay gap for this period was quite large. In 2016 the gap was at about 14%. We could say that is better figure but the gap is still 14%. The issue of occupational segregation in Slovakia also reveals labour market gender inequalities. The share of female managerial positions in 2016 was 3,5% women and 5,2% men, in contrast with the 2002 year 2,6% women and 4,5% men. Gradually, gender plans and questions or solutions are part of the strategy of universities and other research institutions, despite traditional barriers, stereotypes and approaches. At the same time, new technologies make it possible to significantly strengthen gender equality as well as the applicability in different sectors and in different positions. The first results of the gender gap identification at the University of Zilina have been obtained. The proportion of female students, researchers and academics varies by the specialization and by the faculty but the clear under-representation of female is observed in the managerial positions at all the levels.
Keywords: University, gender gap, index, measuring, vertical segregation.