INTENTIONS TO DROP-OUT FROM VET AND ACADEMIC INDISCIPLINE: TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN

In this paper, we present the partial results of a research project carried out in Majorca (Spain) aimed at analyzing the relationship between student engagement and vocational education and training (VET) drop-out pathways. Specifically, the intention of this article is to present the results derived from the association of students’ drop-out intentions from VET programs and academic indiscipline behaviors.

Methodology:
The sample size is 382 students enrolled in Basic Vocational Education and Training Programs during academic course 2015-16 on the island of Majorca (Spain), which means a margin of error of ± 3.4% considering p = q and a confidence level of 95%. The type of sampling used is proportional stratification by professional family (16 families taught in Mallorca). During the fieldwork, questionnaires were collected in 7 towns, 11 centers and 36 classrooms on the island of Majorca.
The questionnaire used in the study is based fundamentally on the model of association between context (family, parents, school, community), students’ engagement and results of Reschly & Christenson (2012), as well as the adaptation of other different instruments. Of particular note are the contributions from the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI), used in the Check & Connect project (Appleton, 2012); the Potential Abandonment Assessment Kit (TRUS), used in Quebec (Janosz, Archambault, Lacroix Lévesquen, 2007) and a study on absenteeism in VET in France (Lannegrand, Cosnefroy & Lecigne, 2012).

Results:
Basics results suggests a strong relationship between student academic indiscipline behaviors (i.e. Annoying peers in class on purpose; Responding to the teacher in an uneducated way; Using crib sheets or other means to copy in exams; D) Absenteeism to class/es without justification) and the intention to dropout from the VET program in which are enrolled. Also there is a strong and significance relationship between the intention to dropout and having been expulsed from school prior to be enrolled in VET.
In this sense, it is recommended that teachers develop different motivation strategies that help students to overcome their academic challenges, but it is also recommended to provide experiences that promote self-esteem and expectations both professional and academic.

Acknowledgement:
This article is part of the activities of the research project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), entitled "Success and dropout pathways in vocational education and training in Spain" (with reference EDU2013-42854-R).

References:
[1] Lannegrand-Willems, L., Cosnefroy, O., & Lecigne, A. (2012). Prediction of various degrees of vocational secondary school absenteeism: Importance of the organization of the educational system. School psychology international, 33(3), 294-307.
[2] Janosz, M.; Archambault, I.; Lacroix, M. & Lévesque, J. (2007). Trousse d’évaluation des décrocheurs potentiels (TEDP) : Manuel d’utilisation. Montréal: Groupe de recherche sur les environnements scolaires. Université de Montréal.
[3] Reschly, A.L. & Christenson, S.L. (2012). Jingle, Jangle, and Conceptual Haziness: Evolution and Future Directions of the Engagement Construct. In Christentson, S.L.; Reschly, A. & Wylie, C. (ed.). Handbook of Research on Student Engagement. NY: Springer, pp 3-20.