About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 6404-6411
Publication year: 2015
ISBN: 978-84-606-8243-1
ISSN: 2340-1117

Conference name: 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 6-8 July, 2015
Location: Barcelona, Spain

THE EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING CONCEPT MAP INTO AUGMENTED REALITY FACILITATED INSTRUCTION

C.P. Chen1, C.H. Wang2

1Taipei College of Maritime Technology (TAIWAN)
2National Taiwan Normal University (TAIWAN)
Research has indicated that augmented-reality (AR)-facilitated learning has positive effects, especially for learning abstract concepts, or non-observable phenomena. AR-facilitated learning combines the virtual and real world by means of displaying virtual objects onto real images in accordance with target markers that manipulating by users. In addition to visualization, users can interact with virtual objects on computer screen or see-through devices. Nevertheless, AR itself could not produce any better learning effect, unless proper learning strategies are incorporated with the AR facilitations. Many research results have exhibited that concept map (CM) may expedite multimedia learning. It is evident that concept mapping creates less cognitive load than teacher-lead summarizations and discussions in various learning subjects and occasions. However, there are insufficient studies that discussed how learner’s cognitive load would be affected while the CM strategy is incorporated into AR-facilitated learning.

This study examined the effects on learning achievement in relation to cognitive load while CM strategy was incorporated into AR-facilitated learning. Five research questions were set to verify whether CM strategy had an effect on learner’s cognitive load, as well as to investigate whether there were interactions between CM and learning achievement. An experiment was done with self-developed learning content, AR toolkit, and evaluative instruments. Two earth science topics: tidal effect and phases of moon were selected as the learning content for the AR-facilitated instruction, because their relationships are abstract concepts and are non-observable in the classroom. A three-stage AR instructional process was designed to bring about the learning objectives. The three stages are: gaining attention stage, learning with AR stage, and summarization stage. The AR toolkit consists of two parts: a physical earth-moon relative position turntable with a webcam, and a set of AR-synchronized virtual images that simulates the relationship between the tidal effects and the phases of moon. We also developed three sets of instrument: an achievement test, a cognitive load questionnaire, and a learning satisfaction questionnaire.

152 subjects from students of 8th grade in a junior high school were assigned to 3 experimental groups: the AR with CM group, the AR with traditional discussion group, and the traditional model demonstration with traditional discussion group (the control group). Proper statistical analyses were performed to examine the significances of the research hypotheses.

The results indicate that:
1) AR-facilitated instruction slightly reduced mental load, but increased mental effort;
2) the AR with CM group significantly outperformed the other 2 groups in terms of the learning achievement; and
3) learning satisfaction had no difference among 3 groups.

These results support our assumption that AR would not have an effect unless proper strategies are incorporated into the instruction. The results also reveal that CM could be a proper strategy for enhancing AR-facilitated instruction. Nevertheless, more investigations on the effect of CM embedded AR on cognitive load are necessary as mixed results of the two cognitive load factors were found in this study.
@InProceedings{CHEN2015EFF2,
author = {Chen, C.P. and Wang, C.H.},
title = {THE EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING CONCEPT MAP INTO AUGMENTED REALITY FACILITATED INSTRUCTION},
series = {7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies},
booktitle = {EDULEARN15 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-606-8243-1},
issn = {2340-1117},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Barcelona, Spain},
month = {6-8 July, 2015},
year = {2015},
pages = {6404-6411}}
TY - CONF
AU - C.P. Chen AU - C.H. Wang
TI - THE EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING CONCEPT MAP INTO AUGMENTED REALITY FACILITATED INSTRUCTION
SN - 978-84-606-8243-1/2340-1117
PY - 2015
Y1 - 6-8 July, 2015
CI - Barcelona, Spain
JO - 7th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
JA - EDULEARN15 Proceedings
SP - 6404
EP - 6411
ER -
C.P. Chen, C.H. Wang (2015) THE EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING CONCEPT MAP INTO AUGMENTED REALITY FACILITATED INSTRUCTION, EDULEARN15 Proceedings, pp. 6404-6411.
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