THE IMPACT OF EDUCATION ON DELAYED MARRIAGE IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
University of Malaya (MALAYSIA)
About this paper:
Appears in: INTED2011 Proceedings
Publication year: 2011
Conference name: 5th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 7-9 March, 2011
Location: Valencia, Spain
Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country, located within South-East Asia, and divided into two parts; East Malaysia, comprises the states of Sabah and Sarawak in the Island of Borneo, separated by South China Sea to the west with West Malaysia or Peninsular Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia which was formerly known as Malaya, a former British colony, has achieved its independent on 31st August 1957. In 2007, total population of Peninsular Malaysia was 20.83 million. The Malay ethnic comprised of 59.66%, Chinese, 25.51%, Indians, 8.82% and others and non-citizen, 6.01% (Malaysia : 2008, Table 2.2.1, 63-64).
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of education on the timing of marriage among Malays, Chinese and Indian women in Peninsular Malaysia. The timing of marriage is demographically important as it will shortens the periods of exposure the risk of conception among women, and at the end, will reduce the fertility levels.
Sources of Data
The main source of data for this study is the Malaysia Population and Family Survey, 2004. This national survey was carried out by National Population and Family Development Board of Malaysia. Other sources of data are from Vital Statistics of Peninsular Malaysia and several Population and Housing Censuses from 1957 until 2010.
Method of Data Analysis
To determine the direct relationship between age at first marriage and fertility, a one-way ANOVA is used. One-way ANOVA method is also used to study the relationship between explanatory variables and age at first marriage. The explanatory variables, such as level of educational attainment, age, regions, strata, states, income, work status, industry and work status before marriage. In order to examine the relative impact of these explanatory variables on age at first marriage, a Stepwise Multiple Regression is used.
Scenario of Levels of Formal Education since Independence.
Since independent, Peninsular Malaysia had achieved tremendous economic and social progress, starting as a very underdeveloped country, rising to a very high level of developing country in 2000’s, and targeted to be a develop nation part of Malaysia in the year 2020. One aspect of development or the aspect which can be considered as an agent for development for Peninsular Malaysia is the rising level of educational attainment among women throughout the years. The number of women who have attained formal education was very much less than 50% in the 1950’s and 1960’s, and it increased to 49% in 1970. The rate rose to 76.8% in 1980, rose slowly to 79.8% in 1991 and to 87.6% in 2000. In the year 2008, it was 99.0% women in
Peninsular Malaysia have attained their formal education (Malaysia, 1977 : 98, Table 4.10, 1983 : 67-70, 2002 ; xii and
It is expected that level of educational status of women will have the strongest effect on age at first marriage among women of all ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia. This improve in education will increased age at first marriage and further reduce fertility levels among women.
Keywords: Development, Education, Age at First Marriage, fertility, Peninsular Malaysia.