THE USE OF GAMIFICATION AS AN IMPORTANT LEARNING MECHANISM
Recent studies have shown the importance of self-assessment as a tool that gives the students a more active role and makes them more responsible for their own learning process (Sánchez-Marín et al., 2018). In a similar way, some evidence points out gamification improves student motivation –both extrinsic and intrinsic (Rodríguez-Fernández, 2017). In this context, it is necessary to analyze how the participation of students in self-assessment activities (using Kahoot application), as a way of continuous assessment, positively impacts their academic performance (Iwamoto et al., 2017).
Thus, and based on intrinsic motivation theory (Malone, 1981), which justify the use of gamification in the learning process (Wang y Lieberoth, 2016), the goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of self-assessments activities (through Kahoot) on student performance, as well as comparing success and performance rates of students who use this tool (compared to those who do not use this innovate methodology). This methodology was implemented in the Degree in Labor Relations and Human Resources (University of Murcia) during the academic year 2018-2019, and our sample is composed of 215 students (enrolled in the subject of Business Administration).
Our results show that student participation in Kahoot activities has a positive effect on the final score of the subject, and this score is increased as the participation in these activities is greater. Therefore, self-assessments activities increase students’ academic performance. Finally, regarding gender, we find that women generally achieve better grades on the final exam. However, when we analyze the moderating effect of gender, we find that the effect of participating in Kahoot activities (on academic performance) is greater in men than women. These results are in line with Gargallo-Castell, Esteban-Salvador and Pérez-Sanz (2010), who pointed out the existence of a more use of ICT in the case of men - although a process of convergence is progressively taking place.
In summary, students who have done self-assessments activities get a higher score on the final exam (compared to those students who have not done these activities). In addition, these scores improve as the number of self-assessments undertaken is greater. Based on these results, we conclude that the use of more active, participatory and innovate tools (in our case, Kahoot), combined with the playful component provided by gamification, improves student motivation and thus achieves an increase in academic performance.
Gargallo-Castel, A., Esteban-Salvador, L., and Pérez-Sanz, J. (2010). Impact of gender in adopting and using ICTs in Spain. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 5(3), 120-128.
Iwamoto, D.H., Hargis, J., Taitano, E.J., and Voung, K. (2017). Analyzing the efficacy of the testing effect using Kahoot on student performance. The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 80-93.
Malone, T.W. (1981). Towards a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive Science, 5(4),333-369.
Rodríguez-Fernández, L. (2017). Smartphones and learning: The use of Kahoot in the university classroom. Mediterranean Journal of Communication, 8(1), 181-190.
Sánchez-Marín, G., Lucas-Pérez, M.E., Carrasco-Hernández, A.J., Lozano-Reina, G., and Nicolás-Martínez, C. (2018). The influence of self-assessment activities on student learning outcomes. Journal of Management and Business Education, 1(1), 28-38.