About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 4939-4950
Publication year: 2009
ISBN: 978-84-613-2953-3
ISSN: 2340-1095

Conference name: 2nd International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 16-18 November, 2009
Location: Madrid, Spain

EXAMINING THE MOTIVATIONAL IMPACT OF INTRINSIC VERSUS EXTRINSIC GOAL FRAMING AND INTERNALLY CONTROLLING VERSUS AUTONOMY-SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION STYLE UPON EARLY ADOLESCENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

M. Çarka, A. Çela

University "Eqerem Çabej" Gjirokaster (ALBANIA)
The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents’ (11-12 year) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e.,health) goal and communicating these different goal-contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect performance.
Both conceptual and rote learning were assessed. Three experimental field studies, two among obese and one among non-obese participants, confirmed the hypothesis that extrinsic goal framing and internal control undermine conceptual (but not rote) learning, even in comparison with a control group.
One theory that helps to clarify how school environments affect children and early adolescents’ motivation and grades is self-determination theory (SDT).
SDT posits that the content of goals (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) supported by teachers and the school as well as the way these goal-contents are communicated (i.e., autonomy supportive vs. controlling) explain variance in children’s motivation and school performance
In all three field experiments, we examined the effect of intrinsic versus extrinsic goal framing and autonomy-supportive versus internally controlling communication style on conceptual and rote learning. In addition to short-term assessments of both aspects of learning, Studies 1 and 2 also contained long-term assessments. Furthermore, Study 1 contained an externally controlling condition in addition to an internally controlling condition. Study 2 included a control group, whereas Study 3 examined the mediating mechanisms that might explain the predicted effect on conceptual learning.
In Study 1 (presented in this paper), participants were told that learning more about these issues either serves the attainment of the intrinsic goal of health and physical fitness, or the extrinsic goal of physical appearance and being attractive to others.
On the basis of previous research and SDT, we expected extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal framing to undermine conceptual learning, even if the former goal is valued by these early adolescents. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that extrinsic goal framing causes an attentional shift away from the learning task. However, because extrinsic goals, due to their strategic connotation, are likely to prompt some superficial engagement in the learning activity, such differences were not expected for rote learning.
We expected that both types of controlling contexts would reduce conceptual learning on both the short-term and long-term, and that both would result in poorer retention of conceptual learning material over time compared to autonomy support because they both induce an external perceived locus of causality. Such differences were not predicted for rote learning, because controlling contexts are likely to induce some behavioral engagement, but rather of a less committed sort. No significant differences in achievement were expected between both controlling conditions.
Finally, we investigated whether an interaction effect between goal-content and social context would emerge, so that early adolescents being told that their task-engagement serves the attainment of an intrinsic goal and this goal being provided in an autonomy-supportive way would result in an even higher level of performance.
@InProceedings{CARKA2009EXA,
author = {Çarka, M. and Çela, A.},
title = {EXAMINING THE MOTIVATIONAL IMPACT OF INTRINSIC VERSUS EXTRINSIC GOAL FRAMING AND INTERNALLY CONTROLLING VERSUS AUTONOMY-SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION STYLE UPON EARLY ADOLESCENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT},
series = {2nd International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation},
booktitle = {ICERI2009 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-613-2953-3},
issn = {2340-1095},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Madrid, Spain},
month = {16-18 November, 2009},
year = {2009},
pages = {4939-4950}}
TY - CONF
AU - M. Çarka AU - A. Çela
TI - EXAMINING THE MOTIVATIONAL IMPACT OF INTRINSIC VERSUS EXTRINSIC GOAL FRAMING AND INTERNALLY CONTROLLING VERSUS AUTONOMY-SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION STYLE UPON EARLY ADOLESCENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
SN - 978-84-613-2953-3/2340-1095
PY - 2009
Y1 - 16-18 November, 2009
CI - Madrid, Spain
JO - 2nd International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
JA - ICERI2009 Proceedings
SP - 4939
EP - 4950
ER -
M. Çarka, A. Çela (2009) EXAMINING THE MOTIVATIONAL IMPACT OF INTRINSIC VERSUS EXTRINSIC GOAL FRAMING AND INTERNALLY CONTROLLING VERSUS AUTONOMY-SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION STYLE UPON EARLY ADOLESCENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, ICERI2009 Proceedings, pp. 4939-4950.
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