LEARNING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING TECHNIQUE THROUGH OBSERVATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ERROR IN SPORT SCIENCE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE STUDENTS
University of Vigo (SPAIN)
About this paper:
Appears in: INTED2013 Proceedings
Publication year: 2013
Conference name: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 4-5 March, 2013
Location: Valencia, Spain
Abstract:One of the most relevant points when learning a proper sport technique is the way in which the student obtains information about the activity that he is currently doing (feedback). This is especially important when the tasks are performed within a fluid which continuously emits kinesthetic stimulation to the body. In this situation, the perception that the learner receives about his performance is not enough to improve his sport technique. Because of that, observational learning techniques, (i.e. video recording) which allows rapid identification of positive and negative skills related to the swimming technique, are needed. Aim: To determine the effect of two different observational methods in the way in which university students learn the theoretical and practical contents of the front crawl swimming technique. Methods: The analysed sample was composed by 106 Sport Science and Physical Activity undergraduate degree university students who were registered during the academic year 2012/13 in the ‘Fundamental and Didactic methods of Swimming’ (F.D.M Swimming). Forty-six students of both sexes (mean age 18.57±0.68 years) were randomly chosen and assigned to two groups (Group A and Group B). Group A was made of 24 students (7 women and 17 men) with a mean age of 18.12±1.30 years while Group B was originally made of 21 students, but one of them was excluded given that he belonged to a competitive swimming club. Therefore, Group B was finally made of 20 students (7 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 18.86±1.46 years.
Both groups attended a one-hour theoretical session about the biomechanics and performance skills of the front crawl swimming technique. Afterwards, all the participants were filmed while performing the front crawl style on an indoor pool. However, only those in Group A watched the performance of their partners and identified their swimming technique errors by means of a registration form specifically designed for this aim. Lastly, students from both groups watched a didactic video of a competitive swimmer performing the front crawl style. During the next class both groups carried out a practical session in which students taught the swimming front crawl style to their partners, by means of correcting their actual performance after watching it in real time from different angles of the pool. Two weeks after these sessions took place, the students will have to answer some questions related to the front crawl technique which will be included in their theoretical exam. Besides, they will have to perform this technique in the pool, as part of their practical examination. Results: The obtained results will show the importance of knowing beforehand the main performance errors when learning a sport technique. After analyzing the final qualification of each student, and taking into account the total score obtained in the front crawl swimming technique theoretical and practical evaluation, we expect to find significant differences between the participants of both groups. Conclusion: This research will show that observational learning, in the case of front crawl swimming style, is reinforced if the learner previously identifies their main performance errors.
Keywords: Learning, sport, technique, observatio identification of error.