University of Rome "Foro Italico" (ITALY)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2017 Proceedings
Publication year: 2017
Pages: 2866-2873
ISBN: 978-84-697-6957-7
ISSN: 2340-1095
doi: 10.21125/iceri.2017.0808
Conference name: 10th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 16-18 November, 2017
Location: Seville, Spain
The increasing number of offers regarding e-learning and on-line courses of studies asks teachers and educators to reflect upon the effects of on-line teaching academic matters critically. To broadcast and explain notions in order to develop knowledge is a necessary but not sufficient condition of an effective teaching. Rather, an educational core purpose should be to improve student critical thinking as well as personal and community reflection. New media devices and social networks remarkably succeeded in spreading notions and information. On the contrary, it is not proved that those are likewise capable of enhancing student curiosity and confidence. The aim of this study is to measure the effects of the on-line teaching sports philosophy on a group of Italian sports science students.

Eighty-seven sport science students took part in the current research. SPS (Sports Philosophy Students) (n=59; age=22.6 yr., SD=2.1) followed the on-line course of sports philosophy, whereas the CGS (Control Group of Students) (n=28; age=23.4 yr., SD=2.4) did not. In this regard, SPS underwent an on-line course of study in sports philosophy consisted of eight lessons during a period of nine weeks. Researchers recorded on-line lessons which were uploaded on YouTube channel and then posted on a dedicated Facebook Group. In order to measure the effects of the on-line teaching, the Kretchmar's (1994) PRI (Philosophic Readiness Inventory) was administrated at the baseline and the end of the course to both groups. PRI includes three sub-scores, namely PCUR (Philosophical Curiosity), PCON (Confidence) and PCOM (Commitment) and it provides a final score called PRQ (Philosophic Readiness Quotient) which consists of the previous three sub-scores sum: lower is the score, better is the PRQ.

Data Analysis:
PRQ, PCUR, PCON and PCOM scores were submitted to separate 2x2 ANOVA with 2 Groups (SPS and CGS) and 2 Test (Pre and Post), with repeated measures on the latter factor. Post hoc comparisons were performed with the Tukey HSD test. The significance level was set at p <0.05.

Statistical analysis highlighted significant Group x Test interaction as concern PRQ (p<.0001). Post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between SPS and CGS in the Post condition (86 vs. 98, p<.05). Furthermore, CGS significant increased its score pointed out a PRQ decrease (92 vs. 98, p<.005). Looking at the sub-scores, it emerged a significant difference concerning both Pre and Post PCUR (28 vs. 29, p<.05), and a Group x Test interaction (p<.0005). Post hoc analysis revealed a significant curiosity decrease in CGS between Pre and Post PCUR (28 vs. 31, p<.005). As far as PCON concerns, the Group factor resulted significant (SPS=34, CGR=39; p<.005), as well as Group x Test interaction (p<.005). Post hoc test highlighted a significant improvement between Pre and Post PCON for SPS Group (34 vs. 39, p<.05). It might mean that SPS improved its confidence in considering sports philosophy as a valuable matter in their studies and daily lives. No significant differences were found for PCOM scores.

Although results don't prove any notable change as concern PRQ for SPS, it seems that the online course of study helped students to increase their confidence to the subject. The CGS significantly decreased their PRQ for unknown reasons, where SPS showed a promising tendency in critically and carefully filling out the PRI post.
e-learning, Facebook, Philosophy, Sports Science Students.