National University of Ireland (IRELAND)
About this paper:
Appears in: INTED2011 Proceedings
Publication year: 2011
Pages: 6482-6490
ISBN: 978-84-614-7423-3
ISSN: 2340-1079
Conference name: 5th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 7-9 March, 2011
Location: Valencia, Spain
As children enter the educational system, learning to read is likely the most challenging and complex task that they face. Students who fail to learn to read by the 2nd year of primary school have a 90% probability of being a poor reader 3 years later, and 74% of those children continue to have reading problems as adults (NICHD, 2000). Appropriate intervention can prevent reading problems for most children and significantly reduce reading disabilities, particularly when such intervention is delivered early (Foorman, Breier, & Fletcher, 2003). Multi-tier support models incorporating formative assessments can lessen the gap between struggling and skilled readers as well as reducing the number of students identified as requiring special education services (Mathes & Denton, 2002; McMaster, Fuchs, Fuchs, & Compton, 2005). Assessments and interventions should be based on the foundational skills of phonological awareness, rhyme, and letter knowledge empirically shown to be functionally related to the development of reading (NRP, 2000): These skills are assessed and targeted by the Children’s Progress Academic Assessment (CPAA); a formative assessment and intervention software targeting literacy skills.
The proposed longitudinal research involves the experimental evaluation of two two-tier support models for emergent literacy skill development: CPAA as a stand alone assessment and intervention package (Model A); and CPAA combined with the instructional methodology Precision Teaching (PT) (Model B). The aim of the research is to compare the efficiency and efficacy of Model A and Model B. The objectives of the research are to assess each models capacity to: lessen the gap between struggling and skilled readers; reduce the number of students identified as requiring special education services; accurately differentiate between those students requiring supplemental instruction, and those with reading disabilities.
Participating schools will be randomly assigned to the following groups: Model A (MA) schools, Model B (MB) schools, and control schools (CS). The skills needs of all students will be identified in the three schools using the CPAA assessment. All students will reside in the primary tier of instruction which is the general education provided in the classroom. In both MA and MB schools two-tier models of reading intervention will be implemented. The secondary tiers of instruction will be delivered to students in MA & MB schools, identified as requiring additional instruction by CPAA assessment. In MA schools CPAA differentiated intervention will be implemented. In MB schools interventions will be delivered using Precision Teaching (PT) to target the skills needs identified by CPAA. CS schools will run the assessment component of the CPAA but will not deliver the differentiated tuition identified by the CPAA, or targeted PT instruction. The research hypotheses are as follows: MA will prove more efficient than MB; MB will prove more effective than MA; over time, students’ scores in both formative and norm-referenced reading assessments will be higher in MA and MB than in CS schools.
The proposed research is seminal in its application of a two-tiered approach to reading skill development using CPAA, and PT. Either model, if proved effective and efficient, will be readily applicable and easily assimilated to existing school curricula and practices; offering tangible solutions to recognised challenges surrounding reading literacy education.