ETHNIC BARRIERS FOR MINORITIES TO STUDYING THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE IN CHINA AND RECEIVING EDUCATION IN IT

S. Barov, M. Egorova, T. Orlova, E. Nikulina

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUSSIAN FEDERATION)
The paper is devoted to the actual topic of the problem for national minorities in modern China to receive education in national languages at all levels of education, from school to university and postgraduate. Equal access to education is a constitutionally established right of all nationalities on the territory of the PRC. This problem concerns such ethnic groups as the Uighurs, Mongols, Tibetans and Hui people living compactly in national autonomous regions. The language and educational policies of the Chinese government over the past few decades have not fully taken into account their interests and ensured the possibility of getting them education in their native language, which led to the partial loss of their national identity, the bilingualization of a significant part of the population in historically and ethnically regions and districts of the country (non-Han China). The authors examine in detail the strategy and methods used by the Chinese government to spread the single language "Pǔtōnghuà" in order to maintain state solidarity, raise questions about China's loss of linguistic and ethnic diversity, focusing on the existing ethno-political barriers in receiving education by national minorities of China's, especially those of their representatives who do not own the state language. The article gives an overview of the evolution of the policy of the central Chinese government in the linguistic sphere, towards the creation of a single language norm of the Chinese language and the elimination of dialectic differences. In the discussion manner, the theme is observed on studying of the balance between two programs: "to prevent the development of separatist sentiments" - "respect for human rights"; prospects and opportunities for changing the policy in the field of education and the introduction of new standards on the base of renewed educational system, the formation of which would help to solve the problem of ethnic barriers in education in China for national minorities.