1 Ghana Technology University College (GHANA)
2 Takoradi Technical University (GHANA)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2018 Proceedings
Publication year: 2018
Pages: 3301-3309
ISBN: 978-84-09-05948-5
ISSN: 2340-1095
doi: 10.21125/iceri.2018.1733
Conference name: 11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 12-14 November, 2018
Location: Seville, Spain
Higher education institutions the world over are presently embarking on a drive towards introducing educational technologies into the teaching and learning processes so as to increase flexibility in course delivery, improve access to learning resources, enhance student engagement and participation in all learning activities, and consequently improve learning outcomes. With online learning resources such as instructional videos becoming more easily accessible and more appealing to the present generation of students, one technology-oriented instructional strategy that is gaining popularity in higher education is flipped teaching. This is an approach that reverses the traditional face-to-face teaching model: learners acquire basic content outside of class (typically video lectures), and then engage in more active and collaborative learning processes in class. Class activities therefore provide learners and instructors the opportunity to engage in more constructivist knowledge and skills acquisition processes.

Despite its growing popularity, empirical research on the effectiveness of the flipped teaching model is still limited. This is particularly evident in the Sub-Saharan African higher education context where workable technology-enabled pedagogical strategies are still evolving.
It is against this backdrop that this study implemented flipped teaching in a semester-long postgraduate management course at a private university in Ghana, with the objective of:
a) exploring adult learners' opinions and perceptions of flipped teaching based on their learning experiences, and
b) assessing flipped teaching as a useful pedagogical strategy for promoting learner engagement, performance and satisfaction
Sixty five (65) MBA students participated in the study.

The course, which was originally designed for face-to-face delivery of lectures and homework assignments, was re-designed and delivered in a flipped mode over a six week period. The pedagogy adopted was mainly case based learning. All learning resources were provided to the students via the school's Learning Management System (LMS), whilst class sessions (held at the weekends) were devoted mostly for group discussions and presentations.

Data for this research (which were largely qualitative) were obtained from the following sources:
i. Server logs of student activities on the LMS platform
ii. Instructor's Observations
iii. Students' self-reported experiences and perceptions
iv. Student evaluation of teaching
v. Students' final course grades

Data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics, content analysis and Grounded Theory coding techniques.
On the whole, students participated actively in all learning activities both in-class and online, felt empowered to take on more ownership of their learning, demonstrated a significant attainment of learning objectives, and expressed high levels of satisfaction with the flipped approach.

Students were also of the view that, flipped teaching:
• was flexible, convenient and more cost effective
• offered richer and more active learning experiences, and
• provided opportunities for peer learning, self-paced learning, and better student-lecturer interaction.

Implications of these findings are discussed with the objective of contributing towards the evolution of workable flipped teaching within Sub Saharan African higher education.
Flipped teaching, Higher Education Institutions, Constructivist Pedagogy, Learning Management System.