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JUST-IN TIME TEACHING AND PEER-INSTRUCTION. AN EXPERIENCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION

J.S. Artal-Sevil , E. Romero 

University of Zaragoza (SPAIN)
In general, improving learning requires changing the traditional teaching model for a more motivating and effective one. A possible solution is the implementation of new pedagogical models based on the student. But, what educational strategies can the teacher use to improve the learning of his students? This paper presents an experience based on two more dynamic and interactive teaching strategies applied in higher education.

Just-in Time Teaching is a pedagogical strategy that uses feedback from the different tasks and academic activities developed by students, usually as homework, to prepare the theory sessions. Its main purpose is to increase learning during the time students are in class. At the same time, it encourages students to prepare the contents that the teacher will explain and develop in class. This technique requires the teacher to find the most appropriate activities for the learning needs, as well as to prepare the materials and content necessary for student learning.

Peer-Instruction is a teaching technique in which two-three students discuss and interact in relation to a specific topic. The objective of the discussion is the deeper understanding of the topic or problem addressed. This method achieves a better assimilation of knowledge, since students use their own language to explain the concepts. Ultimately, higher quality learning occurs. This process of explaining and in turn defending their ideas against alternative explanations presented by other classmates helps students, who become deeply involved in learning. In summary, this teaching technique is based on dialogue between students to reach an understanding of a topic.

These learning strategies (Just-in Time Teaching and Peer-Instruction) have proven to be valid for improving students' critical thinking and conceptual reasoning, within the Flipped Teaching pedagogical approach. Both techniques are complementary and can be used simultaneously. Likewise, to assess student learning during the application of these educational techniques, different ICT tools can be used, such as: Kahoot, Socrative, Plickers, Quizizz, JeoQuizz, etc. In addition, the use of interactive tools within the classroom is intended to allow the "face-to-face" sessions to be much more dynamic, active and participatory. Knowing the answers with the highest failure rate allows us to reflect on the contents that present the most doubts and thus propose different reinforcement actions. This way, a much more active and detailed feedback is achieved. In view of these results, and after their reinterpretation, the teacher can decide to review any of the concepts, in order to reinforce the contents developed in the classroom, or to continue with the programming of the subject.

From the teachers' point of view, the experience has been satisfactory; it has been possible to contrast the applicability of both educational techniques in the university classroom. Likewise, the application of interactive tools as educational resources has accentuated the success of these pedagogical models. It is the result of the implementation of the BYOD model in higher education. On the other hand, students have shown a positive and very favorable attitude to the incorporation of these new teaching models within the training process. The experience presented here has been efficient, sustainable and in turn transferable to other subjects and knowledge disciplines, since the tools used are free software and open source.