University of South-Eastern Norway (NORWAY)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2023 Proceedings
Publication year: 2023
Page: 1305 (abstract only)
ISBN: 978-84-09-55942-8
ISSN: 2340-1095
doi: 10.21125/iceri.2023.0430
Conference name: 16th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 13-15 November, 2023
Location: Seville, Spain
Norway and Denmark are two Scandinavian countries with very similar educational systems as well as similarities in teacher education (TE). They both are at the forefront of using and implementing digital technology in schools and boast widespread access to digital technologies and similar national digitalization strategies. Norway and Denmark are the only two Scandinavian countries that have national guidelines for digital competence in teacher education. By analyzing these two documents, this paper aims at shedding light on how the national guiding documents for TE in Norway and Denmark differ in their conceptualization of digital competence. In doing do, it provides insight into ways to further develop policy, practice, and research that is internationally relevant to the field of digital competences.

The paper applies an abductive approach to making sense of the data by exploring and developing different categories in the search for patterns to give new meaning to the data. Based on this, analytical categories were generated and the findings show that both countries consider it important to address societal and technological changes and changes in the labor market because of the presumed impact of these factors on practices in TE and schools. Both countries also agree on the importance of critical reflexivity being part of digital Bildung in school and refer to a globally changing world and how it impacts us in a variety of ways and include elements related to digital citizenship and the importance of having digital agency and being able to act in a global, online, and changing world. In both documents, empowerment is an interesting concept related to being able to reflect upon one’s participation in digital arenas and having an awareness of its consequences on one’s wellbeing. Such aspects suggest digital Bildung as a basic premise for schooling and for preparing students not only for further studies but also for life. And it extends beyond this when the documents address applying a critical and analytical perspective to communication technologies as well as creating and participating online with an awareness of the consequences that technology and its byproducts can have for society and life in general.

The documents addressing the preparation of students for participating in a changing, global, and democratic world, which can be seen as reflections of the traditional Bildung ideal. However, the Bildung perspectives in the documents seem to go beyond this traditional ideal and to mirror the ontological turn within education. Representing a turn away from what Taylor calls a linear transmission of knowledge and measure of learning. Here the ontological turn changes the focus to a notion of education focused on what being and becoming means. The implication of such an ontological turn is to move away from a learning tradition emphasizing epistemological aspects: how and what to teach. Moreover, the ontological turn suggests a move towards a posthumanist perspective where digital technology is no longer a tool to be mastered but more of an extension of us, requiring our critical awareness. This resonates with elements in the documents: critical reflexivity, digital judgement, digital ethics, and digital identity awareness. Applying this posthumanist ontology to the conceptualization of PDC in TE will emphasize how technology changes our world, as well as us and elements of our being.
Professional digital competence, ontological turn, teacher education, bildung.