EDUCATION FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH OF ELDERLY THROUGH THE USE OF LEISURE TIME CREATIVELY. A DIAGNOSTIC STUDY
Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla (MEXICO)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2015 Proceedings
Publication year: 2015
Conference name: 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 18-20 November, 2015
Location: Seville, Spain
Abstract:In Mexico exists more than 10 million of elderly with an annual growth of 3,8%. The projections indicate that the country is transforming and it is presenting a life expectancy of 76,4 years old (Consejo Nacional de Población, 2012).
Puebla is a medium size city and a large segment of the population in late adulthood stage has more of leisure time available than in other stages of life, however, the health quality decreases.
With the intention of motivating the elderly to spend their leisure time time creatively and improve their social life, it is necessary to make a diagnosis to know their perception, meanings, and practices regarding the use of their leisure time.
A quantitative study based on both the Precaution Adoption Process Model and Theory of Codes about everyone’s leisure time management has been applied to senior citizens in Puebla, Mexico.
This study reveals that the majority of respondents reported to agree (47.2%) to use their leisure time in activities that encourage creativity – STAGE 5, decided to act-, however 54% expressed willingness to invest only between 1 and 5 hours per week in this kind of activities. Despite the existence of institutions and nonprofit organizations that offer opportunities for leisure, recreation and / or development aimed for elderly, 40,9% of the respondents do not know the offer –STAGE 1, unaware of leisure time-. 17% of the respondents know about the topic but have decided not to act –STAGE 4-.
The respondents perceive some positive benefits in the use of their leisure time especially because it offers distraction, improved mood, improve mental alertness and human relationships –STAGES 2 unengaged, 3 undecided to act and 5 decided to act-.
The code analysis showed that considering age and gender there are no significant differences about practices and time spent on leisure activities. However, significant differences were found in perceived benefits by age (60-69, 70-79, 80-89) about physical ability (p=0.053) and bodily strength (p=0.006). Related to self-efficacy by age it was detected that among older, less able to find solutions to problems (p=0.001). Finally, by gender significant differences were found about self-efficacy. Women are more persistent than men to achieve goals (p = 0.009), have more confidence in handling unexpected events (p = 0.033) and have better management skills and resources in unexpected situations (p = 0.008)
The information obtained is useful to develop a persuasive communication campaign oriented to modify the leisure time practices and social lifestyle in elderly, through the promotion of activities that allow them improve their physical and psychological health.
Consejo Nacional de Población. (2012). Indicadores demográficos básicos 1990-2030. From: http://www.conapo.gob.mx
Keywords: Elderly, leisure time, creativity, Precaution Adoption Process Model, education habits and practices.