A STUDY OF STUDENTS WHO HAVE SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS IN THE POLISH SYSTEM OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
The education of students with special educational needs has long been a priority for the European Union and as such, many fundamental documents have been issued over time, in order to specify the direction of its development. The issues refer to legislative changes in Poland for the benefit of children with disabilities, which are trying to meet world trends. The presented material focuses more closely on the Polish education system for a student with special educational needs. At present, it has received a formula of a multi-path model. It means that a parent/guardian may ensure a choice of place of education for his or her child with a disability among special, integrated or inclusive education. Provided that special and integrative education has already achieved a grounded position in Poland, an inclusive education is still at the phase of modification in terms of facilitating and developing. Inclusive education in Poland places great challenges before the school system and the functioning of certain schools, while mobilising them to improve and make flexible programs and methods of learning while boosting the development and competency of the teachers. In the presented considerations, an inclusive education is understood as a process of common education of students with special education in comparison to their able peers in generally-accessible schools. A way to ensure the effectiveness of this process is to provide a feeling of belonging to a school’s society and give psychological, methodological, organisational, and technical support to make sure of the special developmental and educational special needs resulting from their individual development (J. Głodkowska, 2010, page 74). In effect making real, inclusive education seems possible when other systems of inclusion cover students with learning difficulties caused by injuries of hearing and senses of hearing and sight, deficiencies in development of a partial nature and other children with slight, moderate and significant and even further intellectual disability. Not only aims but also strategies of revalidation procedures should be clear. The aim of the process of learning should not focus only on mastering the content by a student but also on the development of existing skills and new abilities and formation of permanent habits of behaviour by adopting educational space, requirements to individual needs and predispositions of students. It requires a more personalised participation in the process of learning standing for working out an individual course of learning. In the presented material the authors also bring closer types of educational personalisation for selected groups of disabilities: students with dysfunction for sight, hearing and movement. It should be facilitated by working out Individual Educational Program (IPE) creating for a student a chance of implementation of the indicated educational aims, more specialised intervention and expanding cooperation with parents, specialists and teachers. The article also focuses attention on a need for modification of methods of evaluation commonly used in generally-accessible schools. Next to universal evaluation there is used so-called inclusive evaluation which allows, in the learning process, for a child to focus on the learning program. The approach assumes that each child learns and develops individually, in various pace and she/he should be provided with such learning conditions which would correspond his/her needs while taking into account children with various dysfunctions.