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PEDAGOGICAL AND COMMUNICATIONAL SYSTEMS IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER. PICTOGRAMS IN THE DENTAL TRAINING

Introduction:
Autism is defined as a pathological entity that produces developmental disorders in which the social interaction, communication and imagination skills are qualitatively affected.
The characteristics of this disorder at the dental practice are the difficult management and dental treatment in these children, making it necessary to establish a protocol of systematic desensitization to familiarize the child with the dental environment. One of the techniques used is the pictogram: a communication technique developed by Bondy and Frost based on shared symbols and images to teach children with ASD to initiate social communication.
We have been treating children with ASD for many years in the postgraduate title IV Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, UCM. We have developed among the years protocols to communicate with these patients, so we were able to treat them in the dental chair.

Objectives:
- Evaluate the use and effectiveness of pictograms to help to improve the communication skills in children with ASD during dental treatment.
- Present the various pictograms that can be used in dentistry to establish communication with these children in dentistry IV Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, UCM.

Materials and Methods:
We made a review of the literature through electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Cochrane) using the following keywords: autism, autistic spectrum disorder, PECS, picture communication, treatment management.
Pictograms have been developed based on the different materials used in dentistry and the treatments that these patients can receive.

Conclusions:
- The pictograms can improve nonverbal communication in children with ASD, making it possible in some cases to acquire the skills for social communication.
- The use of this system at the dental office, helps with the communication between the dentist and the patient, allowing in some cases, dental treatment, depending on their communication skills and training with this technique.