Universidad Complutense de Madrid (SPAIN)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2014 Proceedings
Publication year: 2014
Pages: 3504-3509
ISBN: 978-84-617-2484-0
ISSN: 2340-1095
Conference name: 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 17-19 November, 2014
Location: Seville, Spain
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder where the cells have three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the normal 2. Individuals with this condition will be characterized by a great variability of forms of expression of the disease, the most characteristic being the presence of a learning disability that can adopt different degrees, and the presence of some facial features that make them easily distinguishable.
Patients with Down syndrome may have functional limitations in their oral hygiene. This can result in an increased risk of caries and periodontal disease.
These patients will often find dental crowding, preventing oral hygiene and making them more susceptible to periodontal diseases.
The premise follows in the project, is that better prevention of different pathologies in the oral cavity by teaching techniques care oral health will reduce the need for treatment. Finally, the oral hygiene techniques, require some manual dexterity and neuromuscular coordination, which may assume a favorable practice for preventing deterioration in these patients.

Main objective: Create oral health habits in individuals with Down syndrome with the end of improving their autonomy within the protocols of the school health centers implemented in special education.

Secondary Objectives:
1. Create a group for improving the overall health of individuals with Down syndrome whith the presence of the dentist.
2. Implement standards of healthy habits in the oral area in each of the groups of children with Down syndrome at schools.

Material and Methods:
The literature review allowed us to make a detailed of the educational programme. The agreement made between the Vicepresidency of Instituional and Internationl Relations of the UCM-Down Syndrome Foundation of Madrid, has enabled us to develop this project to educate and improve oral health of these patients with the collaboration of parents and teachers in partner instituions.
The project was conducted in collaboration with the Down Syndrome Foundation of Madrid and two Special Education Centres in Madrid. Phantoms have been used to teach oral hygiene techniques to individuals.
A total of 87 individuals were included, between 6 and 20 years divided into 5 groups. The lessons are conducted one Thursday each month.
Guidelines and recommendations are given to parents to act properly with their children ,followed by their practical applications, all focused on teaching habits that improve their quality of life.

Results and Discussion:
Undoubtedly the most interesting has been that teachers have included us in the design and preparation of each day, significantly different depending on the age and type of disability of each group.
The results collected through teachers and tutors of this work for seven months have been very satisfactory and will be continued in future courses.

From this work has created a group that consists of oral health school that improves the independence of the individual with Down syndrome creating healthy hygiene habits in their entire body.It have been established oral health habits in individuals with Down syndrome improve their autonomy through the creation of rules to be followed by different groups of children in special schools, which can be extrapolated to their daily lives.
Down syndrome, dental hygine, school of health.