FITRAH IN LITERARY CRITICISM: AN ISLAMIC PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE IN TEXTUAL ANALYSIS
Islamic psychology is the psychology of Self and specifically it is the psychology of spirituality. The significance of Islamic psychology in literary criticism and its contribution to textual analysis haven’t been given their due right. This article is concerned with the implementation of Islamic psychology in Islamic literary criticism which is known as ‘fitrah literary criticism’. Fitrah literary criticism is originally based on fitrah (according to Islam, fitrah is a natural state – the original state in which humans are created by Allah, i.e, God ). The theoretical and conceptual framework of fitrah criticism can be understood in the light of four principles. First, the meanings of fitrah which are derived from the verses of the Qur’an and Hadith. Second, the meanings of fitrah form the pattern of fitrah which consists of three elements; akidah (faith and belief in Islam), ibadah (an act of worship and submission to Allah based on the law of Allah, i.e,shari’ah) and akhlaq (disposition, ethics of a person). Third, as a system, fitrah consists of some related psychological elements, namely, self (nafs), heart (qalb), intellect (‘aql) and spirit (ruh). Finally, the principle of aesthetic – the appropriate literary techniques which literary texts employ to portray the fitrah in an aesthetic manner. This article also explicates the possibility of applying the fitrah literary criticism to a literary texts.